Chinese Peking Opera called Oriental opera, is genuine Chinese national treasure. It ‘s named Peking Opera because it’s formed in Beijing. Peking Opera is more than 200 years old, in which its fountainhead can be dated back to old local operas, especially Anhui Opera, which was very popular in northern China in the 18th century. In 1790, the first Anhui Opera troupe came into Beijing to participate in the emperor's birthday performance. Then several Anhui Opera troupes gradually came to Beijing for performance. Anhui Opera troupes were liquid and good at absorb other operas’ musicals and performing method, and there were numerous local operas gathered in Beijing, which made Anhui Opera improve quickly in art.

At the end of 19 century and the beginning of 20 century, Peking Opera was formed by decades of fusion, and became the largest opera in China. Not only the abundance of the repertoire, but also the number of the performing artist, troupe and audience, and the wide of the influnce of Peking Opera, are the first in China. Peking Opera is comprehensive performance art, which integrates singing, speech, acting, acrobatic and dance to tell story. Peking Opera’s roles are mainly divided into male roles, female roles, painted roles and clowns, In addition, there are some supporting roles. Facial painting is a prominent feature of Peking Opera, which mostly can expose the character is loyal or trick, beautiful or ugly, kind-hearted or merciless, honorable or menial. For example, red symbolizes loyal, purple symbolizes brave, black symbolizes honourale, white symbolizes trick, blue symbolizes unyielding, yellow symbolizes merciless, gold and silver mostly used in god, buddha and ghost, to show their gold face and body and symbolize imaginary.

The 18th century is commonly believed that the first flourishing development of Peking Opera.At that time, the opera performance not only in folk, but also in the palace were very prosperous. The royal family loved Peking Opera and the condition in palace was very excellent, which really helped the development of performance, costume, facial makeup and stage of Peking Opera. Palace opera and folk opera influnced each other, that made opera unprecedented development. The second flourishing development of Peking Opera was from 1920s to 1940s, that many genres came out as the symbol of the prosperity. The most famous of genres were Mei Lanfang (1894-1961), Shang Xiaoyun (1900-1975), Cheng Yanqiu (1904-1958)and Xun Huisheng (1900-1968). All of the different genres had many famous performers, they acted on stages in many big cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai, which made Peking Opera in full flourish. Mei Lanfang was one of the most famous artist of Peking Opera all over he world. He learned opera when he was eight, and acted on stage when he was eleven. In his 50 years of stage career, Mei Lanfang created and developed the singing, speech, dance, music, costume and facial makeup of female roles, and formed the unique artistic style. In 1919, Mei Lanfang led troupe performed in Japan, which meant Peking Opera spread overseas first time. In 1930, Mei Lanfang led troupe performed in USA and made great success. In 1934, Mei was invited to Europe and was bewertet by European stage. Since then, Peking Opera was worldly regarded as opera school in China.

Since China's reform opening up to outside world, Peking Opera also has new development, especially got surport from government as traditional art essence. Nowadays, there are many repertoires of Peking Opera performed in Chang'an Grand Theater in Beijing. It holds international opera contset every year, which attracts many opera lovers all over the world. Meanwhile, Peking Opera is a maintain project in Chinese and foreign cultural exchanges.